Glossary of Internet Terms

When it comes to the Internet, there is so much to learn. There are thousands of terms used every day, some of them are self-explanatory, while others sound like another language and leave you questioning what on earth they mean.

We have prepared a glossary of internet terms with a brief definition, so you can learn the basics of computing and what you need to know about the internet. This way you can understand when the term is used or if you ever have to describe a situation with your computer. This is especially helpful for beginners, as well as those who want to broaden their knowledge.

Using our glossary of internet terms, you can become tech-savvy before you know it and know what you are talking about when you are dealing with internet issues.



(Single Carrier (1x) Radio Transmission Technology), A wireless communications protocol used for connections to networks by devices such as laptop computers. 1xRTT has the capability of providing data transfer speeds of up to 144 thousand bps. 1xRTT is a built on top of another widely used protocol, CDMA and is also called CMDA2000.


3G stands for third generation cellular data technologies, which means it must transfer no less than 2mbits a second.

404 Error

A 404 error is a common website error message that indicates a web page cannot be found. It may be produced when a user clicks an outdated (or "broken") link or when a URL is typed incorrectly in a Web browser's address field.


4G is 3G with added internet access, HDTV, and IP telephone.


Address Bar

The field found at the top of the browser view screen where you type in the site address you want to visit, it updates automatically as you navigate through sites.


Advanced Digital Network refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.


Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, usually a very fast download line but with a slow upload, hence the term "asymmetric".


These are advertising software codes that download adverts based on various user online behavior patterns.


Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, a web programming language used to create websites with JavaScript a programming language and XML which are tables of data used to store variables and functions.

Anonymous FTP

Is a file transfer protocol opened to the public, it does not require authentification to access it.


A common open source browser (or HTTP server) software on the Internet. The Apache HTTP Server Project is a collaborative software development effort aimed at creating a robust, commercial-grade, featureful, and freely-available source code implementation of an HTTP (Web) server.


Short for Application, actually a new word that became popular through mobile devices, they called their software "apps" and now it is the term used to define all program or software package used in all systems.


A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The common rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.

Application Server

Server software that manages one or more other pieces of software in a way that makes the managed software available over a network, usually to a Web server. This saves up memory usage and frees it for other program and system needs.


An old WWW tool for finding information stored on FTP's, it was replaced around 18 years ago when search engines became fully functional for internet searching.


(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60's and early 70's by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking to connect together computers that were each running different system so that people at one location could use computing resources from another location.


American Standard Code for Information Interchange, This is the worldwide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation. There are 128 ASCII codes.


Application Service Provider, not to be confused with ASP the programming language. This is a business that runs one or more applications on their own servers and provides access to others. (What is now termed Cloud).


ASP.NET is a programming language and part of the .NET platform offered by Microsoft. It is used for website development, and as part of the .NET platform, it integrates with other application languages and systems.


One of many syndications for sharing feeds, it is a competitor to the RSS feeds.


A component of a mailing system or an application that sends an auto-response to incoming messages.


A graphic representation of an online user.



The main artery or line for a network communication system.


A backlink is an incoming link from an external website to a specific web page. For example, if you publish a web page and 20 other websites link to it, your web page has 20 backlinks. Links to the page from within your own website are not included in the backlink total.


Bandwidth is the amount of data you can transfer over your internet communication line. The larger the bandwidth the more data you can transfer at the same time, the faster the link.

Banner Ad

A banner is a set area in a web page for housing data. A banner ad is an advert set in a pre-defined banner area. Since the internet is run mainly on income from advertising, there will always be lots of banner ads.


Baud rate is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example, a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300= 1200 bits per second).


Bulletin Board System, An old original WWW meeting and announcement system that allowed people to carry on discussions. Was replaced by social media and blogs.

Big Data

Big Data is usually large amounts of information that cannot be processed by normal computer methods, requiring much larger hardware options.


Binary is mathematical and computer science term to define two states, 0 or 1. A binary code is made up of many 0's and 1's. All computer languages are in fact various levels and compilations of basic computer code which is only binary.


BINary HEXadecimal code is the method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.


A bit is one of the binary code states, either 0 or 1.


The first Crypto-currency (digital currency) developed using the original blockchain technology. Bitcoin started the whole digital currency market.


Because It's Time NETwork or Because It's There NETwork, an "ancient" network for educational sites information sharing, BITNET is probably the only international network that is shrinking.


Short for weblog, a log is a recording and sharing of information, a weblog is a web-based information source that we now know as a Blog.

Blogosphere Or Blogosphere

The name was given to all the blogs on the internet.


These are saved web page links, that allows you to revisit the page without having to search for it again.


A bot (short for "robot") is an automated program that runs over the Internet. Some bots run automatically, while others only execute commands when they receive specific input. There are many different types of bots, but some common examples include web crawlers, chat room bots, and malicious bots.


A botnet is a group of computers that are controlled from a single source and run related software programs and scripts. While botnets can be used for distributed computing purposes, such as a scientific processing, the term usually refers to multiple computers that have been infected with malicious software.


Bits-Per-Second; A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 56K modem can move about 57,000 bits per second.


Broadband is an internet connection that offers wider bandwidth than a modem connection.


The computer's interface (platform) with the internet. (Explorer, Edge, Chrome, Safari, Firefox, Tor… and more).


A byte is usually 8 bits. (Hexadecimal).



A communications mode for accessing the internet.


These are programs designed to stop bots from accessing a system by posting a graphic query that only a human can answer.


Context-aware transportation protocol provides explicit context information to the TCP and IP protocols helping web browsers manage data more efficiently.


Stands for "Carbon Copy." but means sending a copy of an e-mail message to another recipient.


Code Division Multiple Access, is a wireless protocol for data and voice communication. CDMA uses a technique called "Spread Spectrum" whereby the data being transmitted is spread across multiple radio frequencies, making more efficient use of available radio spectrum.


Content Delivery Network is a group of servers distributed in different locations, either locally or globally.

Certificate Authority

An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections.


Common Gateway Interface, is a set of rules that describe how a Web Servers and other applications on the same computer communicate with each other.


The "bin" or directory on a web server in which CGI programs are stored.


Any person or computer that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance.

Cloud Computing

A cloud is a physical server that offers access to its hard disk for storage and/or its software for program and application usage. Cloud computing is the latest growing industry.


A group of servers working together, co-locating their resources for combined use.


Cookies are bits of information that a site might request you save on your internet browser to check online client movements.


Stands for "Cost Per Action," and is used in online advertising. CPA defines how much revenue a publisher receives when a user clicks an advertisement on his website and then completes a certain action.


Stands for "Cost Per Click," and is used in online advertising. CPC defines how much revenue a publisher receives each time a user clicks an advertisement link on his website.


Stands for "Cost Per Lead," and is used in online advertising. CPL defines how much revenue a publisher receives when he creates a lead for an advertiser.


Stands for "Cost Per 1,000 Impressions," and is used in online advertising. CPM defines the cost an advertiser pays for 1,000 impressions of an advertisement, such as a banner ad or other promotion. An impression is counted each time an advertisement is shown.


Customer Relationship Management.This is the software used to manage customer service interactions.


Cascading Style Sheet. These are tables of graphic management information used to format the layout of Web pages. A program will refer to its CSS for the relevant visual effects of text, boxes, background and foreground styles.


Stands for "Click-Through Rate," and is used in online advertising. Web publishers typically generate revenue from advertisers each time a visitor clicks on one of the advertisements (the PPC model). Therefore, publishers are interested what percentage of page views result in clicks on the advertisements.


Cyberbullying is when either an individual or a group attack the personal integrity of another by spreading false information or posting personal photos or by just by using cruel language with the intent to harm their victim's feelings and standing in public.


Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well.


The term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer, it now defines the internet, attributing an imaginary spatial depth that doesn’t actually exist. In reality, cyberspace is all the servers and computer hard drives and memory banks holding the information of the internet and the nodes and net worlds connecting them all together.


The practice of registering names, especially well-known company or brand names, as Internet domains, in the hope of reselling them at a profit.


Denial Of Service

This is a cyber-attack where the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a client/server protocol that automatically provides an Internet Protocol (IP) host with its IP address and other related configuration information such as the subnet mask and default gateway.


Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is an umbrella term for a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML).


The digital version of literati are people with expertise or professional involvement in information technology.

Digital Footprint

This is the information you leave online when you apply for and send personal details.


The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.

DNS Record

The DNS record is where the DNS information is kept. It includes the owner's information and contact details as well as their IP address.

Domain Name

A domain name is a recognizable name used to represent an IP address. Since most people wouldn’t easily link a row of numbers to a person or company, domain names were created to help with the navigation issues. For instance, is the DNS of Google. A domain name is made up of two components, the name, and the suffix.

Domain Suffix

A domain suffix is the last part of a domain name and is often referred to as a "top-level domain" or TLD. Popular domain suffixes include ".com," ".net," and ".org," but there are dozens of domain suffixes approved by ICANN.


Transferring data from one computer to yours. If you transfer a file to another computer, that is called Uploading.


Digital Subscriber Line, a method for moving data over regular phone lines.

Dynamic Website

Dynamic websites contain Web pages that are generated in real-time. Unlike static HTML websites, dynamic ones use DHTML and other languages such as, JavaScript, XML etc to create the dynamic experience.



Electronic-commerce refers to all online retail or financial transactions.


Electonic mail, a software package that manages all online messaging.

Email Bomb

A malicious attack where someones email server is "bombed" with mail messages, stopping them from using the system.


A very common method of networking computers in a LAN. There is more than one type of Ethernet. By 2001 the standard type was "100-BaseT" which can handle up to about 100,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.


An intranet that is accessible to computers that are not physically part of a companies' own private network, but that is not accessible to the general public, for example, to allow vendors and business partners to access a company web site. Often an intranet will make use of a Virtual Private Network. (VPN.)



Frequently Asked Questions are a compiled list of questions most people ask about a system or website.


This is a Favorite Icon, a website usually creates a small icon and this is displayed next to its address in the address bar.


(Fiber Distributed Data Interface) A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as fast as 10-BaseTEthernet, about twice as fast as T-3).


A firewall is a set of functions that check incoming data streams and block ones that are considered dangerous. You can set specific firewall rules for different websites and addresses.

Friendly URL

An easy web address (Domain Name) (URL=Uniform Resource Locator). For instance, is the web address of the insurance company AIG. So its easy to remember.


File Transfer Protocol is not an HTML method of communicating between computers. FTP was invented and in wide use long before the advent of the World Wide Web and originally was always used from a text-only interface.



The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example, America Online has a gateway that translates between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another, the sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.


Graphics Interchange Format is a type of graphic file.


1000 or 1024 Megabytes, depending on who is measuring.


Invented at the University of Minnesota in 1993 just before the Web, gopher was a widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet. Gopher was designed to be much easier to use than FTP, while still using a text-only interface. Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which requires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There are still thousands of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a while.



A hashtag is a number symbol (#) used to label keywords in a tweet. The name "hashtag" was coined by Twitter and combines the word "hash" (another name for the number symbol) and "tag," since it is used to tag certain words. In order to tag a keyword in a Twitter post, simply type a number symbol (Shift+3) immediately before the word. For example, you can tag the word "tech" in a tweet by typing "#tech."


A hit is a metric used in website analytics. While "hits" and "visits" are sometimes used interchangeably, they are two different things. A visit is recorded when a user visits a web page. A hit is recorded for each resource that is downloaded from a web server. Therefore, it is common for hits to outnumber visits, often by a ratio of more than 10 to 1.


The homepage is the landing page of a website, it is meant to be the first page a visitor enters.


Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as SMTP (email) and HTTP (web).


(HyperText Markup Language). The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear.


HTML5 is the fifth major standard of HTML. Development of the standard began in 2007 and HTML5 websites started becoming mainstream in 2010. The final HTML5 standard was officially standardized by W3C on October 28, 2014.


HyperText Transfer Protocol for accessing web pages, hence it always opens a domain name (URL) address HTTP://


A hyperlink is a link within a document that points to a specific location in the document or to an outside web page.


A text that contains links.



Stands for "Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers." The ICANN is a non-profit corporation that is responsible for allocating IP addresses and managing the domain name system.


An iframe (short for the inline frame) is an HTML element that allows an external web page to be embedded in an HTML document.


Internet Message Access Protocol, IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers. Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server, without having to actually retrieve the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed, multiple mailboxes can be managed, etc.


In My Humble Opinion, A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they are expressing a debatable view, probably on a subject already under discussion.


Impressions track how many times a web page or element on a web page is viewed. It is one of the standard metrics used in website analytics software.


The vast collection of inter-connected networks that are connected using the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's.


A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. Compare with an extranet.

IP Number

Internet Protocol Number, a unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number. Hackers and crackers and some users use Proxy servers to hide their IP address.


Internet Protocol, version 4, the most widely used version of the Internet Protocol (the "IP" part of TCP/IP.)


Internet Protocol, version 6, The successor to IPv4. Already deployed in some cases and gradually spreading, IPv6 provides a huge number of available IP Numbers - over a sextillion addresses (theoretically 2128). IPv6 allows every device on the planet to have its own IP Number.


Internet Relay Chat was a popular text chat networking model. It has been in steady decline by more modern attractions such as Twitter, although modern IRCv3 is available that introduces more advanced client features like instant notifications, better history support, and improved security.


Integrated Services Digital Network, a slower than DSL/ADSL phone line communications protocol.


Internet Service Provider, a company or service that offers access to the internet via their infrastructure.


Information Technology, a very general term referring to the entire field of Information Technology - anything from computer hardware to programming to network management.



Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.


JavaScript is a programming language that is mostly used in web pages, Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the three core technologies of World Wide Web content production. It is used to make web pages interactive and provide online programs, including video games.


Java Development Kit, A software development package from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test and debug Java applications and applets.


Joint Photographic Experts Group, the most common format for image files.


jQuery is a JavaScript library that allows web developers to add extra functionality to their websites. It is open source and provided for free under the MIT license. In recent years, jQuery has become the most popular JavaScript library used in web development.



A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes.



Lag is a slow response from a computer or program running slower than usual.


Stands for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP." Together, these software technologies can be used to create a fully-functional web server.


Local Area Network, A computer network limited to the immediate area.


A widely used Open Source Unix-like operating system. Linux was first released by its inventor Linus Torvalds in 1991. There are versions of Linux for almost every available type of computer hardware from desktop machines to IBM mainframes. The inner workings of Linux are open and available for anyone to examine and change as long as they make their changes available to the public. This has resulted in thousands of people working on various aspects of Linux and adaptation of Linux for a huge variety of purposes, from servers to TV-recording boxes.


The system or process by which a user gains access to a locked or private site or program.


Mail Server

A mail server (or email server) is a computer system that sends and receives email.


A list of email addresses that can automate multiple sending of one message to many receivers.


A web page or site made by automatically combining content from other sources, usually by using the material available via RSS feed and/or REST interfaces.


Technically speaking, a million bytes. In many cases, the term means 1024 kilobytes, which is a more than an even million.


A meme is a concept or behavior that spreads from person to person. Examples of memes include beliefs, fashions, stories, and phrases. In previous generations, memes typically spread within local cultures or social groups. However, now that the Internet has created a global community, memes can span countries and cultures across the world. Memes that are propagated online are called "Internet memes."

Meta Tag

A specific kind of HTML tag that contains information not normally displayed to the user. Meta tags contain information about the page itself, hence the name ("meta" means "about this subject").


Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a standard used in many situations where one computer programs need to communicate with another program about what kind of file is being sent.


Generally speaking, "to mirror" is to maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to "mirror sites" which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain copies of material originated at another location.


MOdulator, DEModulator, a device that connects a computer to a phone line. The maximum practical bandwidth using a modem over regular telephone lines is currently around 57,000 bps.


Name Server

A name server translates domain names into IP addresses.


A network is when 2 or more computers connected together so that they can share resources.


Any single computer connected to a network.


Open Content

These are copywritten texts made public, they can be copied but it is usually acceptable to name the source.

Open Source Software

OSS is software languages and platforms that allow public use of their coding to create snippets, applications, and programs where the code is for public use. For instance, PHP, Linux are OSS whilst C++ & are not.


Packet Switching

The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines and be sorted and directed along different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.


A string of characters (letters, numbers, and other symbols) used to authenticate an identity or to verify access authorization.


Portable Document Format, a popular file format designed to enable printing and viewing of documents with all their formatting (typefaces, images, layout, etc.) appearing the same regardless of what operating system is used. The PDF format is based on the widely used Postscript document-description language. Both PDF and Postscript were developed by the Adobe Corporation.


Practical Extraction and Report Language, an old programming language that is widely used for both very simple, small tasks and for very large complex applications. Because it is so easy to perform simple tasks and provides many sophisticated features it is often used by professionals for creating complex data-processing software, including the "server-side" of large web sites.


A "permanent link" to a particular posting in a blog. A permalink is a URI that points to a specific blog posting, rather than to the page in which the posting original occurred (which may no longer contain the posting.)


The process in which criminals impersonate a legitimate site or company in emails with the explicit intention of getting the victim to follow the links and thereby divulge personal information.


PHP is a programming language used almost exclusively for creating software that is part of a web site. The PHP language is designed to be intermingled with the HTML that is used to create web pages. Unlike HTML, the PHP code is read and processed by the web server software (HTML is read and processed by the web browser software.)


A process to check if a server is running.


A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software.


PNG is a graphics format file specifically designed for use on the World Wide Web. PNG files maintain a transparent background so their graphic content can blend in nicely with any background.


A form of audio broadcasting using the Internet, podcasting takes its name from a combination of "iPod" and broadcasting. iPod is the immensely popular digital audio player made by Apple computer, but podcasting does not actually require the use of an iPod.


Stands for "Post Office Protocol." POP3 sometimes referred to as just "POP," is a simple, standardized method for delivering e-mail messages. A POP3 email server receives e-mails and filters them into the appropriate user folders. POP is slowly being replaced by IMAP.


A place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.


A portal is a web site that offers an index of websites usually categorized, sort of like a white-pages. Many portals have evolved, such as Yahoo.


Point to Point Protocol is the most common protocol used to connect home computers to the Internet over regular phone lines.


Stands for "Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet." PPPoE is a network configuration used for establishing a PPP connection over an Ethernet protocol. It is commonly used for creating DSL Internet connections.


On the Internet "protocol" usually, refers to a set of rules that define an exact format for communication between systems.

Proxy Server

A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients make all of its requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce the use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks.



Ransomware is a malware that locks access or encrypts data to be released only after a ransom has been paid.

Reciprocal Link

A reciprocal link is a mutual link between two websites. For example, if website A links to website B, then website B can add a reciprocal link back to website A. The result of a reciprocal link is two websites that link to each other.

Responsive Web Design

Since there are many platforms connected to the internet, sites need to conform to the size and browser used to view them. This is called RWD.


REpresentational State Transfer, a loosely defined specification for HTTP-based services where all of the information required to process a request is present in the initial request and where each request receives only a single response, and where the response is in a machine-readable form.


A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.


Rich Site Summary or RDF Site Summary or Real Simple Syndication, a commonly used protocol for syndication and sharing of content, "feeds" which are sources of RSS information about web sites, and RSS "readers" which read RSS feeds and display their content to users.


Real Time Streaming Protocol, RTSP is an official Internet standard (RFC 2326) for delivering and receiving streams of data such as audio and video.



Syntactically Awesome Style Sheets is an extension of cascading style sheets (CSS), the language used to define the layout and formatting of HTML documents.


Scraping, or "web scraping," is the process of extracting large amounts of information from a website.


Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line, a version of DSL where the upload speeds and download speeds are the same.

Search Engine

A program designed to search the contents of the internet for information based on a search parameter. These engines come in different algorithmic formats, the proven best algorithm is Google.

Security Certificate

A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.


Search Engine Optimization, the practice of designing web pages so that they rank as high as possible in search results from search engines.


Stands for "Search Engine Results Page." A SERP is a page that you see after you perform a search using a search engine. It includes a list of search results that are relevant to the search phrase or keywords you entered.


A server is a computer, not an ordinary one, it is specifically designed to handle multiple instances of use for internet access. There are different kinds of servers for various needs, such as a database server and a storage server.


A small computer program designed to add capabilities to a larger piece of server software. Common examples are "Java servlets", which are small programs written in the Java language and which are added to a web server.


A session refers to a set time of communication between two systems.


Secure FTP.

Site Map

A site map, sometimes written "sitemap," is an overview or list of the pages on a website, used for easy navigation when seeking a specific page.


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, The main protocol used to send electronic mail from server to server on the Internet.


Simple Object Access Protocol, A protocol for client-server communication that sends and receives information "on top of" HTTP.

Social Media

Social media is a collection of Internet-based communities that allow users to interact with each other online. The top social media sites include Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Linkedin & Snapchat. There are much more and some very big ones in Chinese and other languages.


Originating from the name of Hormel's canned meat, "spam" now also refers to junk e-mail or irrelevant postings to a newsgroup or bulletin board.

Spam (Or Spamming)

The sending of multiple messaging or unwanted messages, some may contain malware.


A spider is a software program that travels the Web (hence the name "spider"), locating and indexing websites for search engines. All the major search engines, such as Google and Yahoo!, use spiders to build and update their indexes. These programs constantly browse the Web, traveling from one hyperlink to another.


The word "spoof" means to hoax, trick, or deceive. Therefore, in the IT world, spoofing refers tricking or deceiving computer systems or other computer users. This is typically done by hiding one's identity or faking the identity of another user on the Internet.


As the name suggests,this is a covert malware that specifically targets the victim's information and transmits it to the malwares controller.


Structured Query Language, A specialized language for sending queries to databases.


Secure Socket Layer, A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet.

Static Website

A static website contains Web pages with fixed content. Each page is coded in HTML and displays the same information to every visitor.



A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second.


A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.


A tag is a basic element of the languages used to create web pages (HTML) and similar languages such as XML. Another, more recent meaning of the tag is reader-created tags where blogs and other content (such as photos, music, etc.) may be "tagged" which means to assign a keyword.


Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, these are the protocols that define the Internet.


1000 gigabytes.


A computer or interface that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else.

Terminal Server

A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node.


Top Level Domain, the last (right-hand) part of a complete Domain Name, what is called a "suffix". For example .biz, .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .net, .org


When computers communicate over the Internet, there are often many connections made along the way. This is because the Internet is made up of a network of networks, and two different computers may be on two separate networks in different parts of the world. Therefore, if a computer is to communicate with another system on the Internet, it must send data through a series of small networks, eventually getting to the Internet backbone, and then again traveling to a smaller network where the destination computer resides.

Trojan Horse

named after the Trojan Horse (read up on your Greek History) it is disguised as a trusted program but in fact, is used to open backdoors or to perform certain functions that are aimed to harm your computer or gather personal information.


Tunneling refers to a protocol in which one protocol is encapsulated within another.



A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets).


Transferring data (usually a file) from a computer you are using to another computer. The opposite of download.


Uniform Resource Identifier, An address for resources available on the Internet.


Uniform Resource Locator, the term URL is basically synonymous with URI. URI has replaced URL in technical specifications.


Unix to Unix Encoding, A method for converting files from Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the Internet via email.



An application used to infect and harm computer systems.


Voice Over IP, applications used to allow making telephone calls over IP networks, especially the Internet.


Virtual Private Network uses encryption to create a private and secure channel to connect to the internet, it also allows you to hide your true IP address, enabling you to access IP specific blocked sites.



Short for "World Wide Web."

Web Host

A web host is a company that "hosts" your website softare and acts as the DNS lookup.

Web Page

A web site is made up of web pages, some sites might be only one page whilst most have more than one.

Web Server

A web server is the computer (server) that hosts your website on it, and if it is not a dedicated server, than usually hosts many web sites.


A webhook is an event notification transmitted via HTTP, the same protocol used for transferring webpage data. It is typically sent as a POST request, which contains data that is "posted" to a specific URL. The URL defines the location of a script, which processes the data in the POST request.


Webmail is the internet version of e-mail software. For instance, if you have a gmail account, you might have Outlook on Windows to read your messaged while you will have access to your gmail account via gmail on the internet.


The webmaster is a person who is in charge of maintaining your website and updating it. In case of software errors the webmaster I the person to contact.


A web site is a collection of web pages.


WHOIS (pronounced "who is") is an Internet service used to look up information about a domain name. It is short for the question, "Who is responsible for this domain name?"


Wireless Fidelity, the popular term for wireless data communication, basically Wi-Fi is "Wireless Ethernet".


A wiki is a public access web site for which the content can be easily edited and altered from the web browser in which you are viewing it.


WordPress is a free content management system used to build and maintain websites.


A worm is similar to a virus but is not attached to another program to spread, the main purpose of a worm is to replicate itself to destroy the system.


World Wide Web,(or simply Web for short) is a term frequently used (incorrectly) when referring to "The Internet", the WWW is in fact only the data stored in the internet and represents all these data sources.



Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages. It mirrors or extends versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which Web pages are formulated.


In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.


Zone File

This is a DNS file that provides information about one or more domain names, it also provides mapped information about different IP addresses and sub domain names.

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